The Birth and Evolution of the Alfa Romeo Giulia GTA series
by noted Alfa Romeo Autodelta Historian Vladimir Pajevic
... with Robert Little
Finding a new home for the Giulia TZ and the new Giulia GT in Settimo Milanese
In the 1960's, Alfa Romeo, S.p.A. was the state-owned factory marked by the chronic "disturbed growth" pattern and to address that problem, the overall owner of the entire enterprise, the "Institute for Industrial Reconstruction" (IRI) had brought Giuseppe Luraghi to the helm of the company. As the new managing director, Mr. Luraghi managed that difficult Italian puzzle with innate charisma and great authority.
An extraordinary strategist Luraghi was able to understand sibylline market oracles and to find the right answers for the future. Mindful of Alfa's past triumphs, he felt that the link Alfa Romeo had with the race track was indissoluble and the guarantee of the brand's survival.
For the return to the racing world that was abandoned after the war following two consecutive world championships, Alfa Romeo, S.p.A. under Mr. Luraghi chose the Touring Car Championship... extremely popular with the public, and he gave the Special Experience Service Department the task of developing from a car already in production, the version suitable for racing.
It was decided to use the Giulia GT (excellent base), already the sports version of the brand with handy, successful construction to prepare a racing version. The Giulia GT (project code 105.32) was a small, harmonious four-seater car, an early work by Giorgetto Giugiaro, who at the time worked in Nuccio Bertone's studio, and designed this true masterpiece of Italian style.
To obtain the high degree of competitiveness with the new car, Mr. Luraghi decided to involve Carlo Chiti and Lodovico Chizzola and their small factory "Delta Auto" in Udine who were already engaged on behalf of Alfa Romeo on a contractual basis to elaborate 100 chassis of the TZ racing model with bodywork by Zagato...with those 100 units reflected by the FIA regulations for the standardisation of models in sporting comppetition. Ing. Chiti and his partner Mr. Chizzola were 50/50 partners in the enterprise.
In 1964, Alfa Romeo decided to absorb this small factory and transfered it to Settimo Milanese, not far from main factory plant in downtown Milano.
According to his autobiography "Carlo Chiti: Sinfonia ruggente" with Oscar Orefici, Carlo Chiti found himself and his partner embroiled in a logistical mess...the TZ chassis were built in a Veneto workshop normally producing aircraft assemblies, the chassis were then sent to the Zagato coachworks north of Milano on Rho where the bodywork was added. At that point the TZ bodies were sent back to Udine where his 15 Delta Auto mechanics completed the final assemby.
Ing. Chiti continued that President Luraghi forced the transfer of the small company to be closer to the Alfa Romeo factory in Milano. Relating the words spoken by the President:
"You will have to transfer Autodelta because its turning into too big a company, as you can see by the sales figures. We can't go on on this basis...we'll buy up your shares and you'll stay on in the capacity of managers with the maximum autonomy" Luraghi declared.
The marriage of Autodelta and Alfa Romeo S.p.A. occured in the Fall of 1964.
Ultimately, the success of the TZ and the TZ 2 in the Grand Tourisme category along with the Giulia Super in the Tourisme category... cars supervised by factory engineers Orazio Satta and Giuseppe Busso...led to the creation by Autodelta and the factory of the new GTA series.
Introduced at the 1965 Amsterdam Motor Show and later at the Geneva Show, Autodelta created a unique series of a new 105 series model, the Giulia GTA, which was intended for its sporting customers who often raced the cars themselves. A model GT Junior of 1300 cc size followed at the "Mostra delle Vetture Sportive" show in Torino in February 1967.
Thus Autodelta effectively became the brand's racing department. In February 1965, at the Amsterdam Motor Show, competition destined Giulia GTA was presented, where A stood for "Lightened", and only an expert eye could immediately distinguish the new car, otherwise identical to its sister GT. Between 1966 and 1969, according to the homologation request, 493 examples of the GTA 1600 were produced, of which 486 are documented. The colors of the car were only two, Rosso 501 traditional Alfa racing cars, and Bianco 101, Howthorn while, and both models on the the sides had stamed the magical talisman inherited from Ugo Sivocci, a green four-leaf clover in a white triangle. Carlo Chiti and his Autodelta were entrusted with the task of turning the GTA into a winning car. The GTA myth was born, and this is its story.
The platform and steel frame of the Sprint GT were used for the car, but its body was produced of aluminum alloy sheet, Peraluman 25, composed of aluminium, zinc and manganese, which made it possible to lower the weight up to around 700 kg . The mechanics mirrored the one already present on the GT version, but included the engine with a new double ignition cylinder head, head’s cover, front engine cover, oil sump and oil sump, and many other mechanical components produced in lightweight Elektron alloy, connecting rods, crankshaft, and special camshafts, and a myriad of other details aimed at lowering the initial weight of the car. The power of the engine rose slightly up to 115 HP for the Stradale version, but to reach 160 HP on the version intended for the tracks. The Giulia GTA mounted 165x14 tires on 6-inch Campagnolo rims, and lacked sound insulation, it had lightened seats and mounted a simple protective rollbar, in the spartan interior of the car. The steering wheel was the Hellebore brand in wood and aluminum with perforated spokes and the dashboard of the GTA was lightened and with complete instrumentation.
Of the entire GTA production, around fifty specimens were entrusted by Alfa Romeo to Autodelta, from where they came out prepared for track racing, with lowered and stiffer set-ups, tuned engines and with some additional lightening. These GTAs ranged in power from 154 to 175 bhp, an outstanding result for a 1600 cc engine built half a century ago. The handling was precise, stiff and very direct, drift-free with 3.7 turns of the steering wheel, and a braking system, powerful and abrupt, but without standard brake booster (it had to be fitted on request). The passenger compartment, already not very spacious as standard, was reduced to the essentials, with a racing-type driver's seat and four-point seat belts. The wheels, with the adoption of 14" electron wheel rims, were fitted with the 5.50x14 Dunlop Racing Rs, and the free exhaust, known as a duck beak, came out from under the left door, producing the characteristic scream of the GTAs racing version.
It is clear that extreme lightening is the first noticeable specification on the GTA, in this case, not simple filings where possible, but a true passage to the new concept through the change of material in the construction of the bodywork which passes from sheet steel to Peraluman 25, a complex elaboration of the engine and the set-up that made it possible to lower the weight of the car from the initial 950 kg of the Sprint GT to 745 of the road-going Sprint GTA that was regularly equipped with bumpers and descending glass windows. In fact, many, analyzing the GTA, underlined the absolute "normality" of this extraordinary car, which basically didn't present any solution that was too new or revolutionary. The GTA was simply the sum of many "normal" solutions guessed and happily incorporated into the project. The heart of the GTA was the legendary Alfa Romeo twin-cam engine, in the 1570 cc version, considered by many to be the best 4-cylinder in the history of motoring. Of clear aeronautical inspiration, this engine was conceived in the early 1950s, and remained in production in its numerous variants until 1998, remaining the common base for all the cars of the 105 series. However, the specific character of the GTA beside to the Peralluman bodywork and the true difference from the other versions in the Giulia family, were born right under the hood. It was immediately noticeable the absence of the typical air filter with the well-known "proboscis" that ensured the air to the box that enclosed two double-barrel Weber carburetors. The twin generous 45DCOE14s, instead, were equipped with a dynamic intake inherited from the TZ version, while fuel supply was ensured by the two Bendix electric pumps, fixed at height of the right rear seat, on the body under the car (some tuners, such as Renato Monzeglio from Turin, preferred the single pump, the same used by Maserati). The pumps came into operation with each contact to start the engine, ensuring a constant pressure of 1.3 bar of the fuel flow arriving at the carburetors. On the head cover there was a specific cap for topping up the oil with a particular shape which, initially, in the racing car, sent the excess oil freely into the air but in later versions it was connected to a container for the oil fixed on the left side of the engine compartment which sent the recovered oil back towards the sump. This system was introduced in compliance with FIA annex J for 1966. The head cover was in Elektron recognizable by its characteristic dark color, and in the space between the banks of the cylinder head there were 8 Golden Lodge 2HL spark plugs, but for the prepared engines the Lodge RL46, RL47, or RL49 were preferred (the choice was dictated by the circuit), connected with 8 green cables to the large Marelli S119A distributor, located on the right side of the front cover of the engine. The two spark plugs per cylinder system ensured higher engine efficiency by improving combustion. The adequate spark was ensured by the two Marelli BZR200A coils, or Bosch Blu Coil, fixed to the sheet metal of the right wall of the engine compartment, and the electrical supply was ensured by the Bosch dynamo which from the end of 1968 was replaced by the more modern alternator of the same brand. Engine starter, specially lightened, was always from the German Bosh. Also in Elektron were the front cover of the engine with the distributor housing, (used only in the first versions, and then replaced by the suitably modified aluminum one, (given that one in Elektron had proved to be fragile) which also housed the water pump which remained standard. The oil sump, deeper than one of the standard GT, crossed by numerous ribs introduced to dissipate heat, was Elektron piece too. The sump was available in three different sizes for the GTA based on the preparation of the car and contained up to 7.5 liters of oil. Universally considered the true masterpiece of the GTA was the cylinder head in two versions: road-going and specially tuned for racing cars. Cast in light alloy and distinguished by the number in relief on the front side, it housed two camshafts, specially produced in special steel with valve lift of 10.50 mm, or those prepared by Autodelta for official racing cars. The valves, two per cylinder, were inclined at 80° and in direct contact with the camshaft through cups and shims. The intake and exhaust support seats were brought to a thickness of 1 mm, and the valves fitted with a double spring in Chrome-Silicon steel, while the guides were in Manganese Bronze. The permitted clearance was 0.425 mm for the intake valves and 0.575 mm for the exhaust ones. All the ducts were hand ground and polished, and on racing cars, manifolds on the intake side sometimes changed in diameter or bushed according to the specific use in race, to ensure smooth engine use at low revs (normal diameter ducts 37 mm and those with sleeves 33 mm). The valves, also in special steel, had a diameter of 45 mm for the intake ones, and 41 mm for the exhaust ones, which in the versions prepared to dissipate heat more effectively, were cooled by the liquid sodium contained in the stem. The intake manifold connected the group of two double Weber 45DCOE14 placed horizontally on the right side of the cylinder head. On the left side there was the exhaust manifold in sheet steel with a diameter of 36 mm, with slightly conical branches to decrease, merging from four into two tubes, and then in a single tube, again in sheet steel with a diameter of 55 mm, towards the silenced mufflers, reduced in number compared to the standard GT in the road version, or the characteristic side exhaust that ended under the door, on the racing variant. The seal between the head and the engine block was ensured by the special gasket, and the tightening was done following a particular pattern. The engine block was ground and strengthened for the racing version and housed the separately removable cast iron liners, a common feature for all Giulia GTs. The crankshaft was forged in special Chrome-Molybdenum steel, ground and equipped with 4 counterweights, and mounted on five supports with Vandervell brand thin-shell bearings with a diameter of 60 mm and secured to the block with light alloy bridges. The shaft for the racing version was equipped with 8 counterweights, balanced and ground on the bench before assembly. Bearings of the connecting rods, always with a thin shell and always by Vandervell, had a diameter of 50 mm, while the connecting rods were standard, but ground and equalized in weight with a tolerance of 0.05 gr, and with special bushings. Even the pistons of the Borgo brand were forged, and with a particular profile, designed for high compressions. Special pistons with two rings with a diameter of 78 mm were mounted on racing cars, or those with three rings with a diameter of 78.7 mm. Rings were produced by Borgo, type 5240, with a diameter of 78.8 mm. The oil pump, increased in flow rate for racing engines, had a longer intake axis to operate also the distributor and the dip tube could be in different sizes according to the depth of the sump mounted. On the racing model, the characteristic under-cup had 6 horizontal ribs, and was dangerously close to the ground. As a remedy against accidental impacts, a protective grille was approved. To cool the oil, an additional radiator was positioned to the left of the water cooler, and that additional radiator was also available on the road variant on request. The water radiator of the GTA was smaller than the radiator of the standard GT (precisely reduced in size to accommodate the oil cooler), but with a greater radiant mass, thanks to the thickness of the material used. Coolant (water, 7 liters) circulated pushed by the centrifugal pump located on the engine cover, while the fan was moved by the crankshaft, which kept it in motion via the belt. A double silenced chain, also connected to the crankshaft, controlled the camshafts. On the right side of the engine block, in a special rectangular space, the engine number was punched, made up of the letters AR, engine code 00502/A, asterisk, and then the 5-digit number from 18563 to 19695, identical for left-hand and right-hand drive, and in no precise numerical order. Some engines had the code AR 00532, but the factory never explained this type of stamping, and the engines were identical anyway. Some engines prepared by Autodelta in Settimo Milanese, had a different punching, of a less digits but there are no precise data regarding this numbering preserved until today. Brakes were made up of four solid discs with a diameter of 266 mm, a thickness of 9.525 mm, with a braking surface of the single disc of 51.5 cm2, for front brakes, and a diameter of 246 mm and a thickness of 9.525 mm and a braking surface of 36, 5 cm2 for rear ones, with Dunlop brand aluminum calipers. An assisted braking system was also available on request, approved in 1968, which could be recognized by the large pump with depressor, fixed to the left corner of the engine compartment near the firewall. In the variant of the GTA produced on the platform of the GTA 1300 in 1969, the brakes were by ATE, with a diameter of 267 mm on all four wheels, but with discs of different thickness (11 mm front and 9.5 mm rear) with a braking surface of 51 and 40 sq cm respectively. The ATE's calipers were made of aluminum too. The 19 mm thick stabilizer bar was mounted on the front suspensions, but 22, 24 and 26 mm bars were also approved, and used according to the specific needs of the circuits. The bars from 14 to 20 mm were homologated on the rear axle, and specially adapted trailing arms were adopted to facilitate changing, with the bar positioned low. The front suspension wheel hubs was distinctive, designed exclusively for the GTA, leaner and lighter than the hubs fitted to the production GTs. From 20 March 1966, the cars destined for competitions, equipped on the rear axle with the dynamic roll center system, known as "slittone" (sliding block), had mounted "risers" on the upper end of the knuckle on the front suspension, raising the upper arm and thus changing the static camber angle of the car. This had become necessary to compensate the cornering behavior due to the assured grip of the rear wheels on the track because of the action of the "slittone" (sliding block), and "C" shaped "risers" (produced in forged steel) ensuring the perpendicular position of the front wheel when cornering even in cases of strong lateral thrust. The small series of GTAs, produced in 1969 with chassis numbers starting with 848001, used the same wheel hub (knuckle) as the one used on the 1300 cc GTA Junior. The "slittone" or the dynamic roll system that allowed the lowering of the roll center when cornering, was an original system conceived by the engineer Garcea, and perfected at Autodelta. This solution approved at the beginning of 1966 consisted of an aluminum structure that enclosed a steel slide that replaced the anchor element arranged transversely and made in the shape of the letter "T", which remained unchanged on the road version and in the racing versions of some private tuners (Conrero). This element consisted of a rail that descended perpendicular to the axle and was connected to it via a pin fixed on the differential case. The pin walking in the rail-sled, changed the roll center resulting in greater cornering stability and drastically reducing oversteer which caused, in some fast corners, the inside rear wheel to lift off the ground. The greater road holding of the rear axle thus obtained caused marked understeer, and the famous "raised paw" effect from the rear was transferred to the front. However, the GTA maintained its good stability and was faster cornering than its rivals even when running on three wheels. Koni shock absorbers in the initial version of the GTA were not adjustable except by adding "notches” and were later replaced by adjustable shock absorbers of the Bilstein brand, while the coil springs, common to the standard springs on the road variant, had to be replaced with the harder and lower springs on competition cars. Continuing the examination of the bottom of the GTA, the bell in Elektron was revealed, with a lightened steel flywheel and the single-disc mechanical clutch with progressive flexible coupling, replaced in 1966 with the reinforced variant. The racing version had a slightly different lightened flywheel, adjusted and used a special clutch disc for competitions. The gearbox was five gears plus reverse. The synchronization system used was of the Porsche type and, on request, various ratios were available. For the racing version, at the suggestion of the driver Giovanni Galli, an even closer gearbox was developed, with an extended fifth gear, named in honor of the driver "cambio Nanni". The gears were drilled to lighten the entire structure, and on some cars raced by other tuners, Colotti gearboxes with close ratios and direct coupling, without synchronizers were occasionally mounted. The transmission shaft had a slightly smaller diameter, the rubber couplings and the connection bolts were lightened, and in the racing versions the support and protection structure was lightened with special holes. The hypoid-type differential was available with various ratios that could be changed on the axle, and a self-locking differential with various closing percentages was also available on request. Drive shafts were lightened and made of special steel. Upon request, the entire rear axle was available with special ratios and lightening. The steering was globoid system with a roller and required 3.7 turns to make full turn with a minimum of 10.7 meters. The GTA unleashed all its power on the wheels with 6, 6.5, or 7x14 alloy rims produced by Campagnolo, and for racing it relied on Dunlop 5.00L SC65 or 5.50L SC65 tyres, while the road version rested on 165x14, always by Dunlop but also Pirelli “Cinturato”. To accommodate the wider 5.50L SC tires, the rear fenders were homologated in 1967, produced in Peraluman and fixed with 22 rivets. From 1969, tailpieces were also homologated on the front fenders, fixed with 42 rivets. The electrical system was common to all cars of the 105 series, running at 12V and the battery, previously positioned on the left side of the engine compartment, was moved to the luggage compartment in 1967 for safety reasons. The fuel tank, available in three versions, was located in the trunk. One of 46 liters originally planned and remained standard, with lateral refueling on both versions, for road driving and also on the version intended for racing, the version increased to 60 liters, and two designed for long-term racing 80 and 90 liters e, approved in 1966. The 60, 80 and 90 liter capacity versions, had approved version of refueling system from the filler neck located in the luggage compartment lid. In the initial versions of the GTA, the filler was protected by a characteristic hump-shaped cover. This last detail closes the list of all the parts of the GTA different from those used on the standard GT model, and the enormous effort made by the designers directed by Carlo Chiti in the search for the best solution for every detail of the car in sight is evident from the vastness of the elaborations of its competitive use. Chiti was present and involved in every phase of the development of the new solutions, a tireless innovator and master of deciphering the complex codes of the FIA's appendix K. After all, he was the creator of the car for which in place of the usual question; “Where do we go to race?”, technical crew used asking “Where do we go to win next week?”. The right-hand drive version produced in 50 units was identical to its left-hand drive sister, and only the steering axis and the pedals were moved to the right side of the car. There is a curious judgment, expressed by some drivers, who attributed the best road holding to the right-hand drive version, given that the left-hand drive version, having the battery and tank on the left side and having the weight of the pilot on the same side too, had a slight longitudinal imbalance. This alleged imbalance had to be compensated (theoretically) with the driver's counterweight in the right-hand drive version. This theory has never been seriously tested and is more urban legend than evidence-backed certainty.
In February 1965, the racing version of the Alfa Romeo GT 1600 was presented, distinguishable by its acronym "GTA" where A stood for "lightened".
The car differed externally from the Giulia GT, which was the base of its project in a few details of the bodywork, but under the light Peraluman 23 aluminum alloy cladding there was a well-tuned and elaborated engine, and also the rest of the equipment was clearly built following the rules of the racing car.
The Alfa Romeo GTA offered to the market was 200 kg lighter than the Alfa GT from which it originated and had a slightly more powerful engine than its sister (115 HP vs 95 HP of GT), but which in the track version rose to 160 HP, and transformed the little coupé from Portello into a formidable opponent on the circuits.
The competition debut happened in 1965 at the Trento-Monte Bondone hill climb race where the GTA easily won in the GT group up to 1600 cc. And that was the birth of the myth of the GTA, the car built and destined to win always. The care and preparation for competition was entrusted to Autodelta, a small factory that already cared for and developed the brand's sports cars, the TZ and TZ2 models, with which Alfa Romeo reaped successes on the racetracks.
In 1966, Autodelta, owned by the brilliant Tuscan engineer Carlo Chiti and the Chizzola brothers, was absorbed by Alfa Romeo and transferred from Feletto Umberto (Udine) to Settimo Milanese in the proximity of the mother company. Ludovico and Gianni Chizzola, unwilling to move towards Milan, left Autodelta and Carlo Chiti was appointed general manager and also counselor of Alfa Romeo’s board.
It was a prosperous period for Alfa and the factory was skillfully led by the new CEO Giuseppe Luraghi, who with great intuition managed the difficult Italian puzzle that the Portello factory, owned by IRI, represented in the industrial reality of Italy, a country that with renewed vigor sought for its place in Europe and in the world.
The factory, heir to a glorious past, guarded the tradition that more than any other on a planetary level, identified its name with motor racing, and Luraghi, mindful of past triumphs, felt that the link Alfa Romeo had with the track was indissoluble and also the guarantee of the survival of the brand.
Those days were happy moments of the Italian industrial renaissance when, with renewed vigor and enthusiasm, entrepreneurs in the automotive sector discovered the value of auto sport as the best way to offer their brands to the market awakened by the conquered prosperity.
The publicity that arose from the successes on the circuits and the dusty rally tracks crowned the cars which, beyond their usefulness, demonstrated something more... a permanance level previously reserved for custom-built cars. This is how automobiles classified as Touring cars were born, offering sometimes outstanding qualities, a sort of family car which, however, could enhance the driving qualities, road holding and liveliness of sports cars.
Alfa Romeo was in the past the factory that produced unbeatable racing cars, high-end cars and sometimes even the cars that were intended for wealthy middle-class customers, characterized by innovative technology, which over time had carved out a place at the top. In the immediate post-war period, however, it became clear that in order to guarantee its survival, the now state-owned factory, had to asure the profit from mass production. In that search for balance between the quality that the name guaranteed and the need to keep finances on the positive side of the balance, new projects were born which in the years to come will guarantee the indisputable success of the Milanese factory.
In the immediate post-war period, it was still the legacy of the glorious past brought to Olympus by names like Ferrari and Jano that guaranteed the return and conquest of the two world championships, but these were projects born towards the end of the 1930s, and only repurposed for major sporting events with little improvement. There were Jano's disciples, young engineers on the rise, Satta, Busso, Garcea, Surace…involved in the work of the Special Experiences Service, that created the new energies that resulted in construction of the brand new families of engines and cars, Giulietta and then Giulia which with the reduced displacements required by the market, were the winning response of Italian ingenuity and the ability to rediscover new ways in European and world reality.
Alfa Romeo, in order to entrust the fate of the Portello factory to the manager Giuseppe Luraghi, gave the necessary entrepreneurial lifeblood to the reality that Alfa already represented, and it was under his wise and balanced management that the factory experienced its best moment, expansion and financial stability. Giuseppe Luraghi, the new managing director who took over the helm of the company, was open-minded man and a brilliant interpreter of the times. An atypical manager, a good writer and poet, he was also a good painter, and he did not respond to the stereotype of the skilled captain of industry immersed in the strategies of profit. In addition to the difficult task of stabilizing the precarious financial situation of the factory, he managed with his innate charisma to mitigate union discomfort, and carry forward development, keeping at bay the intrusiveness of politicians ready to use the factory for their own purposes and interests. He was an extraordinary strategist who managed to understand market demands and plan the future of the factory, without forgetting, however, tradition and a glorious sporting past. Personally, in love with auto sport and mindful of past triumphs, he felt that the bond that Alfa Romeo had with racing had to be preserved, maintained and strengthened. Thus, with the success of the lucky Giulietta and Giulia models, he matured the decision to support the production cars with the real sports car capable of competing at a high level in the Touring car category, which at that time increasingly inflamed the European public. Thus, was born an "affordable" racing car which, under the favorable auspices of the stars, won in the decade to come everything that could be won in auto sport. The new true sports car, the Alfa Romeo Giulia, Gran Turismo Alleggerita, was presented at the Amsterdam Motor Show in February 1965, a non-prominent motor show and therefore perhaps an inadequate setting for the car who would become an immortal queen, a true Italian masterpiece. Alfa Romeo GTA was the progenitor of a family of racing cars destined to conquer the leading role in the world of racing at a global level. In a sequence of continuous sporting successes, the Giulia 1600 GTA, Giulia 1300 GTA Junior, and the limited series of Giulia GTA SA with the supercharged engine were born. To this list we must also add the Giulia GT Am, which although not "lightened" and not part of the same family, was closely related and the dominating car of competitions. In the next chapters, we will dedicate a detailed description of the performances and the peculiarities to each car of the noble GTA lineage.
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Qualora decidessi di usare il contenuto del sito web per scopi commerciali o di altro tipo senza la previa acquisizione di tutti i diritti, sarai responsabile se qualcun altro detiene tali diritti e si oppone al tuo utilizzo.
Naturalmente, l'uso di immagini contrassegnate come protette da copyright di cui sono titolari individui o gruppi identificati in ciascuna pagina o allegati a ciascuna immagine, è proibito ed è soggetto alle sanzioni previste dalla legge sul copyright degli Stati Uniti e dalla Convenzione di Berna, oltre che dalle altre leggi e protezioni pertinenti.